intrados n : the interior curve of an arch
An arch is a structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight (e.g. a doorway in a stone wall). True arches appeared as early as the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamian brick architecture and in Persian ziggurats (see Chogha Zanbil). True arches were also built by the Babylonians in the 6th century BC (see Ishtar Gate ). The arch then spread to Europe and was adopted by the Ancient Greeks, Etruscans, and Ancient Romans. The arch became an important technique in medieval European cathedral building as well as Islamic architecture. Across the ocean in Mexico and Central America, Mesoamerican civilizations created various types of corbelled arches, such as with the interior tunnels in the Great Pyramid of Cholula and the many styles of corbelled arches built by the Mayan civilization. In Peru, the Inca civilization used a trapezoidal arch in their architecture. The arch is still used today in some modern structures such as bridges.
Arches were first created and used by the Mesopotamian, Persian, Harappan, Egyptian, Babylonian, and Assyrian civilizations. Many arches were used in buildings and in monumental architecture, such as in the Ishtar Gate and the ziggurat of Chogha Zanbil. Other arches were used in underground structures such as drains where the problem of lateral thrust is greatly diminished.
From the Middle East, knowledge of arch building spread to Europe. The ancient Romans learned the arch from the Etruscans (who originally migrated out of the Middle East), refined it and employed it for above ground buildings. Throughout the Roman empire, their engineers erected arch structures such as bridges, aqueducts, and gates. They also introduced the triumphal arch as a military monument. Vaults began to be used for roofing large interior spaces such as halls and temples, a function which was also assumed by domed structures from the 1st century BC onwards.
The Roman arch is semicircular, and built from an odd number of arch bricks (called voussoirs). An odd number of bricks is required for there to be a capstone or keystone, the topmost stone in the arch. The Roman arch's shape is the simplest to build, but not the strongest. There is a tendency for the sides to bulge outwards, which must be counteracted by an added weight of masonry to push them inwards. The Romans used this type of semicircular arch freely in many of their secular structures such as aqueducts, palaces and amphitheaters.
The semicircular arch was followed in Europe by the pointed Gothic arch or ogive (derived from the Islamic pointed arch in Moorish Spain), whose centreline more closely followed the forces of compression and which was therefore stronger. The semicircular arch can be flattened to make an elliptical arch as in the Ponte Santa Trinita. The parabolic and catenary arches are now known to be the theoretically strongest forms. Parabolic arches were introduced in construction by the Spanish architect Antoni Gaudí, who admired the structural system of Gothic style, but for the buttresses, which he termed “architectural crutches”. The catenary and parabolic arches carry all horizontal thrust to the foundation and so do not need additional elements.
The horseshoe arch is based on the semicircular arch, but its lower ends are extended further round the circle until they start to converge. The first examples known are carved into rock in India in the first century AD, while the first known built horseshoe arches are known from Aksum (modern day Ethiopia and Eritrea) from around the 3rd–4th century, around the same time as the earliest contemporary examples in Syria, suggesting either an Aksumite or Syrian origin for the type of arch. It was used in Spanish Visigothic architecture, Islamic architecture and mudéjar architecture, as in the Great Mosque of Damascus and in later Moorish buildings. It was used for decoration rather than for strength.
In Mexico and Central America, Mesoamerican civilizations created various types of corbelled arches, such as with the interior tunnels in the Great Pyramid of Cholula and the many styles of corbelled arches built by the Mayan civilization.
ConstructionAn arch requires all of its elements to hold it together, raising the question of how an arch is constructed. One answer is to build a frame (historically, of wood) which exactly follows the form of the underside of the arch. This is known as a centre or centring. The voussoirs are laid on it until the arch is complete and self-supporting. For an arch higher than head height, scaffolding would in any case be required by the builders, so the scaffolding can be combined with the arch support. Occasionally arches would fall down when the frame was removed if construction or planning had been incorrect. (The A85 bridge at Dalmally, Scotland suffered this fate on its first attempt, in the 1940s). The interior and lower line or curve of an arch is known as the intrados.
Old arches sometimes need reinforcement due to decay of the keystones, known as bald arch.
The gallery shows arch forms displayed in roughly the order in which they were developed.
Technical aspectsThe arch is significant because, in theory at least, it provides a structure which eliminates tensile stresses in spanning an open space. All the forces are resolved into compressive stresses. This is useful because several of the available building materials such as stone, cast iron and concrete can strongly resist compression but are very weak when tension, shear or torsional stress is applied to them. By using the arch configuration, significant spans can be achieved. This is because all the compressive forces hold it together in a state of equilibrium. This even applies to frictionless surfaces. However, one downside is that an arch pushes outward at the base, and this needs to be restrained in some way, either with heavy sides and friction or angled cuts into bedrock or similar.
This same principle holds when the force acting on the arch is not vertical such as in spanning a doorway, but horizontal, such as in arched retaining walls or dams.
Even when using concrete, where the structure may be monolithic, the principle of the arch is used so as to benefit from the concrete's strength in resisting compressive stress. Where any other form of stress is raised, it has to be resisted by carefully placed reinforcement rods or fibres. (See Arch bridge.)
- Understanding Architecture: Its Elements History and Meaning pp. 27-8
- Oldest Known Arch In The World Photography by a U.S. soldier serving in Iraq.
- DIYinfo.org's Constructing Brick Arches Wiki - A wiki on how to construct brick arches around the house
- DIYinfo.org's Constructing Timber Framed Arches Wiki - Similar to the brick arches but extra information for timber arches
intrados in Afrikaans: Boog (boukunde)
intrados in Min Nan: Oân-kong
intrados in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Арка
intrados in Bulgarian: Арка
intrados in Catalan: Arc (arquitectura)
intrados in German: Bogen (Architektur)
intrados in Spanish: Arco (construcción)
intrados in Esperanto: Arko (arkitekturo)
intrados in Basque: Arku (arkitektura)
intrados in French: Arc (architecture)
intrados in Galician: Arco (arquitectura)
intrados in Korean: 아치
intrados in Hindi: चाप
intrados in Croatian: Luk (arhitektura)
intrados in Icelandic: Bogi (byggingarlist)
intrados in Italian: Arco (architettura)
intrados in Hebrew: קשת (מבנה)
intrados in Latin: Arcus (architectura)
intrados in Latvian: Arka
intrados in Hungarian: Boltív
intrados in Dutch: Boog (bouwkunde)
intrados in Japanese: アーチ
intrados in Norwegian: Bue (arkitektur)
intrados in Norwegian Nynorsk: Boge i arkitekturen
intrados in Narom: Arche
intrados in Polish: Łuk (architektura)
intrados in Portuguese: Arco (arquitectura)
intrados in Russian: Арка
intrados in Simple English: Arch
intrados in Finnish: Kaari (rakennustekniikka)
intrados in Swedish: Båge
intrados in Thai: อาร์ช
intrados in Ukrainian: Арка
intrados in Chinese: 拱